Gynaecology or Gynecology

(see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (vagina, uterus, and ovaries). Outside medicine, the term means “the science of women”. Its counterpart is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system.


Examples of conditions dealt with by a gynaecologist are:
• Cancer and pre-cancerous diseases of the reproductive organs including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva
• Incontinence of urine
• Amenorrhoea (absent menstrual periods)
• Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual periods)
• Infertility
• Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods); a common indication for hysterectomy
• Prolapse of pelvic organs
• Infections of the vagina (vaginitis), cervix and uterus (including fungal, bacterial, viral, and protozoal)
• UTI and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
• Premenstrual Syndrome
• Other vaginal diseases
There is some crossover in these areas. For example, a woman with urinary incontinence may be referred to a urologist.